6.2) Azazel in First Enoch as a Nephilim

We have already briefly covered the main passages describing the fall of the Watchers in First Enoch chapters 6 through 8.  As we shall see, a careful study of these passages and others will conclude that Azazel was not an angel or a Watcher, but that rather he was the firstborn seed of the Watchers.  We shall also see that there are some intriguing hints that his mother was not a daughter of man, but Lilith. 

The first clue to Azazel’s identity comes from his sudden prominent appearance only after the Watcher’s had committed their fornications with women.  When the Watchers gave their oaths upon Hermon in First Enoch 6, a list of all their major leaders is given.  As many scholars have noted, Azazel is pointedly not on the list.  However, after the Watchers had sexual relations with women and raised giants upon the earth, Azazel suddenly appears in chapter 8 as a major leader.  First Enoch 8:1-2 condemns Azazel for teaching men the art of war and women the ways of harlotry.  Because of him there arose much ungodliness.  Azazel’s corruption of man apparently greatly exceeded that of every Watcher, even that of Semjaza, who is listed after Azazel.  Two entire verses are dedicated to describing Azazel’s dastardly acts.  This is in contrast to Semjaza, who has only three words used to describe his feats in corrupting man. 

From where did Azazel suddenly appear?  He is not even listed as a top twenty leader at the time of Mount Hermon before the fornication with women.  However, after his sudden appearance in chapter 8, Azazel is preeminent over all the Watchers throughout the rest of First Enoch.  The next example of this comes in First Enoch 9:6-8, where the angels Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel witness the bloodshed of man upon the earth, and testify to God.  They testify foremost against Azazel, more so than any Watcher.  Azazel’s sins are mentioned first, even over Semjaza’s.  Perhaps most importantly, the angel’s accusations against Azazel do not include fornication with women.  This is the primary accusation against Semjaza and his associates in the next two verses.  Thus, Azazel does not appear to have had sexual relations with the daughters of man, something which all Watchers pledged to do by solemn oath upon Mount Hermon.  In addition, Azazel is judged separately in verse 6 from Semjaza and his associates, indicating that Azazel is not under the authority of Semjaza, whom is the leader of all Watchers.  In verse 7 Semjaza is declared the leader of all the Watchers, and he is lumped with them in the condemnation of defiling themselves with women.  Azazel being judged separately in verse 6 is consistent with him not being under the authority of Semjaza, and thus not a Watcher at all.

First Enoch 9:6-8  (translated by R. H. Charles)
6 Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which men were striving to learn:
7 And Semjaza, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates.

8 And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins.

The prominence of Azazel continues in First Enoch 10:8, where God ascribes all the sins of the Watchers unto Azazel (Richard Laurence’s translation states, “To him therefore ascribe the whole crime”).  Only Azazel is called out for special punishment.  In First Enoch 10, God commands the angel Raphael to bound Azazel hand and foot, cast a mountain of rocks upon him, and cover him in darkness in a place called Dudael.  God then instructs a second angel, Gabriel, to slay the Watcher’s Nephilim seed of fornication with women.  Gabriel is not to listen to the pleas of the Watchers to save their children.  After this God sends a third angel, Michael, to punish Semjaza and his Watcher associates.  God instructs Michael to bind Semjaza and his associates as they witness the death of their seed at the hands of the second angel Gabriel.  Then Michael was to bind them in the valleys of the earth until the Day of Judgment. 

First Enoch 10:4-12  (translated by R. H. Charles)
4 And again the Lord said to Raphael: ‘Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein.
5 And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light.
6 And on the day of the great judgment he shall be cast into the fire.
7 And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague,
and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons.
8 And the whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.’
9 And to Gabriel said the Lord: ‘Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle: for length of days shall they not have.
10 And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and that each one of them will live five hundred years.’
11 And the Lord said unto Michael: ‘Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves with them in all their uncleanness.
12 And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgment and of their consummation, till the judgment that is for ever and ever is consummated.

The entire sequence of events suggests Azazel is a seed of the Watchers.  First, Azazel is punished at the beginning with the rest of the Watcher’s seed.  This is consistent with Azazel being a seed of the Watchers.  The Watchers would have to witness Azazel’s punishment just like the rest of their seed.  Azazel being punished first is inconsistent with him being a Watcher.  If Azazel were a Watcher, then his early punishment would have given him a measure of mercy from the other Watchers, in that Azazel would not have had to witness the demise of his seed.  Such mercy is not consistent with the severe punishment to Azazel, upon whom is ascribed the entire sin.  Another fascinating clue pointing to Azazel being a seed of the Watchers comes in verses 6 and 7.  They indicate that when Azazel is cast into the lake of fire, this will heal the earth of the angel’s corruption upon it.  What is the manifestation of their corruption upon the earth?  It is their Nephilim seed.  This thus again indicates Azazel is a seed of the Watchers.  This identification is consistent with verse 8, which states that the accusation against Azazel is that he taught man sin.  Mating with women is not listed as a crime of his, but it is for Semjaza and his associates in verse 11.  This is all consistent with Azazel being a seed of the Watchers. 

The fact that Azazel is punished before the Watchers’ other seed and by a separate angel indicates his prominent role.  It is also suggestive of something else.  The seed of the Watchers to be slain by Gabriel are specifically called out in verse 9 to be “the children of fornication.” [1]  This fornication refers to the illicit sex between the angels and the daughters of Adam.  Azazel not being punished in this group implies he is not the seed of the angels’ illicit fornication with the daughters of Adam.  However, his early punishment does indicate he is a seed of the Watchers.  These two apparently contradictory ideas can best be rectified if Azazel is identified as a seed of the Watchers, but not as a result of their relations with the daughters of man.  But who else then could have mothered Azazel?  There is no other possibility than Lilith.  She alone is outside the linage of Adam and the daughters of man.  With Lilith as his mother, Azazel would then be a seed of the Watchers which God intends to destroys, but he would not be a seed from the fornications of the angels with the daughters of Adam, which was directly polluting Adam’s linage.  Being a seed of Lilith could also explain Azazel’s extraordinary powers.  He was none other than the long foretold mythical seed of the Serpent of Eden, Lilith. 

There are a final two chapters from First Enoch which re-enforce the notion that Azazel is the seed of the Watchers.  They are chapters 12 and 13.  Chapter 12 opens with Enoch worshipping God in heaven with the angels.  He receivers a command to go down to the fallen Watchers on the earth and to announce their upcoming punishments.  They were going to witness the murder of their children.  In chapter 13 Enoch goes down, and meets first with Azazel alone.  Enoch tells Azazel that a great punishment is heaped upon him to be put in bonds.  The charge against him is that he taught unrighteousness, godlessness, and sin to man.  Once again, Azazel is not charged with having sex with the daughters of man.  This is the charge which God instructed Enoch to lay against the Watchers in First Enoch 12:4.  In First Enoch 13:3, Enoch departs from Azazel.  He then goes unto all the Watchers who were gathered together, and he tells them of their punishment.  Azazel is not present at this meeting, as the verse is clear that Enoch departed from Azazel to go unto the gathering of all the Watchers.[2]  Since all the Watchers were gathered together there, and Azazel was not present, Azazel was not considered one of the Watchers.  

First Enoch 12:1 – 13:10  (translated by R. H. Charles)
12:1. Before these things Enoch was hidden, and no one of the children of men knew where he was hidden, and where he abode, and what had become of him.
2 And his activities had to do with the Watchers, and his days were with the holy ones.
3 And I Enoch was blessing the Lord of majesty and the King of the ages, and lo! the Watchers called me -Enoch the scribe-
and said to me:
4 ‘Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselves wives: “Ye have wrought great destruction on the earth:
5 And ye shall have no peace nor forgiveness of sin: and inasmuch as they delight themselves in their children,
6 The murder of their beloved ones shall they see, and over the destruction of their children shall they lament, and shall make supplication unto eternity, but mercy and peace shall ye not attain.”‘
13:1. And Enoch went and said: ‘Azazel, thou shalt have no peace: a severe sentence has gone forth against thee to put thee in bonds:
2 And thou shalt not have toleration nor request[3] granted to thee, because of the unrighteousness which thou hast taught, and because of all the works of godlessness and unrighteousness and sin which thou hast shown to men.’
3 Then I went and spoke to them all together, and they were all afraid, and fear and trembling seized them.
4 And they besought me to draw up a petition for them that they might find forgiveness, and to read their petition in the presence of the Lord of heaven.
5 For from thenceforward they could not speak (with Him) nor lift up their eyes to heaven for shame of their sins for which they had been condemned.
6 Then I wrote out their petition, and the prayer in regard to their spirits and their deeds individually and in regard to their requests that they should have forgiveness and length.
7 And I went off and sat down at the waters of Dan, in the land of Dan, to the south of the west of Hermon: I read their petition till I fell asleep.
8 And behold a dream came to me, and visions fell down upon me, and I saw visions of chastisement, and a voice came bidding I to tell it to the sons of heaven, and reprimand them.
9 And when I awaked, I came unto them, and they were all sitting gathered together, weeping in ‘Abelsjail, which is between Lebanon and Seneser, with their faces covered.
10 And I recounted before them all the visions which I had seen in sleep, and I began to speak the words of righteousness, and to reprimand the heavenly Watchers.

6.2.1          The Mysterious Oath Atop Mount Hermon

Identifying Azazel as the seed of Semjaza with Lilith also provides a possible explanation for the strange events atop Mount Hermon in First Enoch 6:3.  Recall that Semjaza was very concerned that the other angels may back out of their intentions to mate with women, and that he alone would be guilty of a great sin.  Therefore, Semjaza gathered all the angels together atop a Mount Hermon so that they may swear an oath to one another.[4]  The passages imply that before the other angels could mate with women, there was some great sin that Semjaza had to commit.  This sin goes unspecified, but it must have been required to allow the angels to mate with the women, or otherwise Semjaza would have had no fear about being required to perform this deed before the others mated and sinned.  However, Semjaza obviously fears that after committing this great sin, the other angels may back out and leave him alone in a disgraced state.  What could this great sin have been?  One cannot say for sure, but there are several hints in ancient literature that suggests the sages thought the great sin involved Semjaza acquiring the holy name of Jehovah through mating with Lilith, and thereby using the name to mate and bear seed with the daughters of Adam. 

The first hint comes in the Book of Parables, which is attached to the modern compilation of the First Book of Enoch.  Parables is now generally acknowledged to be a separate work that was written in the Christian era.  It was not originally a part of the much older and original work in the first book of Enoch, the Book of the Watchers.  Parables also suffers some considerable corruption through the editing of later writers (we will discuss that later).  Nonetheless, Parables serves as a window of insight into what many early Christian scholars thought about the reasons for the mysterious oath atop Mount Hermon. 

Chapter 69:12-17 (translated by R. H. Charles)
12 And the fifth was named Kasdeja: this is he who showed the children of men all the wicked smitings of spirits and demons, and the smitings of the embryo in the womb, that it may pass away, and [the smitings of the soul] the bites of the serpent, and the smitings which befall through the noontide heat, the son of the serpent named Taba’et.
13 And this is the task of Kasbeel, the chief of the oath which he showed to the holy ones when he dwelt high above in glory, and its name is Biqa.
14 This (angel) requested Michael to show him the hidden name, that he might enunciate it in the oath, so that those might quake before that name and oath who revealed all that was in secret to the children of men.
15 And this is the power of this oath, for it is powerful and strong, and he placed this oath Akae in the hand of Michael.
16 And these are the secrets of this oath {. . .} And they are strong through his oath: And the heaven was suspended before the world was created, And for ever.
17 And through it the earth was founded upon the water, And from the secret recesses of the mountains come beautiful waters, From the creation of the world and unto eternity.

Parables chapter 69 discusses a list of Satans (angels who fell with Satan).  Verse 13 discusses an angel named Kasbeel, who is the chief architect of an oath which he showed the holy ones.  The holy ones are unfallen angels, whom are the Watchers before the fall.  Kasbeel is also apparently a Watcher, for he showed the oath to the angels while he still yet dwelled in glory in heaven.  The key to the oath is the holy name of Jehovah, which Kasbeel somehow acquired from the arch-angel Michael.  When this name was recited in the oath, it envoked great power.  It was through such an oath that the heavens and the earth were created. 

It is certain that the oath of Parables chapter 69 is the same as the oath enunciated by the Watchers atop mount Hermon, for verse 14 states that the oath was for those “who revealed all that was in secret to the children of men.”  It is also certain that the key to the oath was the holy and secret name of Jehovah.  It is also fascinating to note that Kasbeel is somehow associated or synomous with the 5th Satan, Kasdeja.  Kasdeja is responsible for “the bites of the serpent, and the smitings which befall through the noontide heat, the son of the serpent named Taba’et.”  Now the bites of the serpent are the bites of the serpent Lilith.  The terminology of the bites of the serpent is also reminiscent of the Serpent Lilith’s role in the bitter water trial according to the Zohar (see section 5.3).  Kasdeja is also responsible for the “son of the Serpent”, which is named Taba’et.  The name Taba’et is unknown elsewhere, and the linkage between Kasdeja and Kasbeel is unclear.  R.H. Charles notes how the Ethiopic verses are dubious and corrupt, and how a better source manuscript from the original Greek and/or Aramaic was needed.  However, the passages somehow link or associate God’s holy secret name to the Watcher’s oath atop Mount Hermon, to the serpent, and to her son. 

The notion that God’s name was needed by the Watchers is also taught in other ancient sources.  Consider the following story concerning Semjaza (spelled “Shemhaza” here) from Legends of the Jews.  In it Louis Ginzberg sites ancient Midrashes.  The story relates that when Semjaza first descended to earth, he was ensnared by a maiden named Istehar.  She tricked in him into teaching her the Ineffable Name of God, by which means she ascended into heaven

Legends of the Jews (by Louis Ginzberg)

When the angels came to earth, and beheld the daughters of men in all their grace and beauty, they could not restrain their passion. Shemhazai saw a maiden named Istehar, and he lost his heart to her. She promised to surrender herself to him, if first he taught her the Ineffable Name, by means of which he raised himself to heaven. He assented to her condition. But once she knew it, she pronounced the Name, and herself ascended to heaven, without fulfilling her promise to the angel. God said, “Because she kept herself aloof from sin, we will place her among the seven stars, that men may never forget her,” and she was put in the constellation of the Pleiades.

There is a very similar story in the Midrash Beresheet Rabbati.  Here the maiden’s name is Asterah.  Margi B. and others assert that Istehar and Asterah are clearly linked to the Ishtar, and hence Lilith.[5]  Indeed, the use of the Ineffable Name and wings are certainly suggestive of the Lilith legend.  However, it appears the sages tell the story in exact opposite.  At the time of the Watchers descent, Lilith already possessed the name of God.  A key part of her legend is that she shouted this name when she underwent the sudden transformation into a winged serpent that fled the garden.  It was the angels who knew not the secret name of God.  Lilith was certainly no pure saint.  God would not reward her with a place as a constellation in the heavens.  Margi asserts that these Midrashes on Istehar and Asterah are mirror images to those of the darker Lilith and Ishtar.  Indeed, if the story is exactly flipped, we have the right story for Lilith.  Semjaza and his angels descended to earth, and Lilith ensnared them.  She promised to give the secret name of Jehovah to Semjaza if he would mate with her. 

Immediately they descended (to earth), and the evil impulse gained control of them. When they beheld the beauty of mortal women, they went astray after them, and were unable to suppress their lust, as Scripture attests: ‘and the sons of God saw, etc.’ (Gen 6:2). Shemhazai beheld a maiden whose name was ‘Asterah. He fixed his gaze upon her (and) said to her: ‘Obey me!’ She answered him: ‘I will not obey you until you teach me the Inexpressible Name, the one which when you pronounce it you ascend to Heaven.’ He immediately taught her, she pronounced it, and she ascended to Heaven. The Holy One, blessed be He, said: ‘Since she has kept herself pure from sin, I will make her an example so that she might be remembered in the world.’ Immediately he fixed her (in the heavens) among the seven stars of the Pleiades.

Why was the Ineffable Name of God so important in the angel’s mating with the daughters of Adam?  In order for the angels to conceive children with women with them, they needed the secret name of Jehovah.  Angels were creatures of spirit, and not intended by God to procreate.  In order to reproduce like Adam, they needed the secret name of God.  This secret name is required to animate life, the highest creative act of God, just as it was needed to create the heavens and the earth according to Parables.  We have already seen this notion in the creation of golems.  The written name of God placed in the golem’s mouth was an essential ingredient to animating the creature.  Likewise, the dissolved name of Jehovah in the bitter waters given to the Sotah was an essential ingredient in animating the dust in her belly into the mystical seeds of adultery and promise.  The angels likewise needed the secret name of Jehovah to conceive seed.  Lilith was in possession of this name, and she was in search of a rival seed to Eve’s. 

In order for Lilith to raise seed with Semjaza, she would have to give the secret name to Semjaza during their mating.  This is true because the male spirit must speak the name of Jehovah for conception to take place.  This may partly explain why the Watcher’s power of speech was stripped from then in First Enoch shortly before their imprisonment, and why the pre-flood Nephilim were called Enowsh Hashem (“Men of the Name”).  They were literally men conceived by the angels speaking the Hashem (“The Name”) of Jehovah.  The need for Semjaza’s deal with Lilith also explains his great sin and odd oath atop Mount Hermon.  Semjaza agreed to mate with Lilith, such that when she revealed the name of Jehovah during the act, he would utter the name and conceive seed with her.  He would then be in possession of the secret name and be able to impart it to his fellow Watchers, who he had constrained by an oath not to back out of the deal he had made with them prior to mating with Lilith.  Thus equipped with Jehovah’s secret name, the Watchers were ready to mate with the daughters of man.  Note that having Azazel being the resulting seed of Semjaza’s “deal” with Lilith, explains why the entire sin of the Watchers is ascribed to him.  Through this deal of Semjaza’s to conceive Azazel, the entire episode of the Nephilim upon the Earth was initiated.  Thus, the entire sin of the event is manifest in Azazel. 

Let me make the record clear.  Practically every ancient Midrash implies Azazel is a fellow Watcher with Semjaza.  However, all these Midrashes are just commentary from ancient sages.  They do not pretend to be divine scriptures.  The only written work purported to have the weight of divine scripture, First Enoch, teaches that Azazel is not a Watcher.  In addition, the most important Midrash of all, the Zohar of Kabbalah, implies Azazel is no fallen angel, but rather the seed of Satan and Lilith. 

Let me also clarify another point.  The many ancient Midrashes which suggest Azazel is a demon are still consistent with him being a seed of the Watchers.  This is because the Midrashes teach that slain Nephilim became disembodied spirits.  On this side of the flood, they are demons that can possess people.  Azazel would certainly fall into this pseudo-angelic category.  Albeit, it appears that of all the Nephilim, he alone might be strictly imprisoned such that he cannot wander about and possess people. 

6.2.2  Explaining the Book of Parables within First Enoch

All these evidences I have listed so far for Azazel being the seed of the Watchers comes from the first book of First Enoch, the Book of the Watchers.  There is a second book to First Enoch called the Book of Parables.  It makes three more references to Azazel.  Two of these passages are supportive of Azazel being the pre-eminant Nephilim, and not a Watcher (they will be discussed in Azazel’s role in the end times in section 8.6.1). However, in one reference, in Chapter 69 verse 2, Azazel is included in a list of angels and thus appears to be an angel.  However, Parables is now generally acknowledged to be a separate work that was written in the Christian era.  It was not originally a part of the much older and original work in the Book of the Watchers.  Furthermore, Parables was later corrupted by a clumsy editor.  R.H. Charles identifies the Parables text mentioning Azazel (in grey below) as a corrupt insert from an unknown editor using material from the Book of Noah.  The text includes Azazel in a list of angels.  As can be seen, the list mentioning Azazel is clearly corrupt.  It interrupts an original list of Satans (angels who fell with Lucifer) in the Parables text with a list of Watchers.[6]  The result is the mixing of Satans with Watchers into a combined list, something the original text did not intend to do.  In addition, because of this clumsy insert, there are also two “first angels” (Semjaza and Jeqon) specified in the text, along with two “second angels” (Artaqifa and Asbeel), etc.  The insert of 21 Watchers in verse 2 is a corrupted relist of the 19 leaders first given in Chapter 6.  The biggest corruptions are that Turel is erroneously listed twice (in the 15th and 19th positions), as is Azazel (in the 10th and 21st positions).  Azazel’s listing in the 10th position is apparently a corruption of Asasel in the 10th position of chapter 6.  Recall that Azazel was not mentioned at all in the original chapter 6 list of Watchers.  

First Enoch 69:1-8 (The Book of Parables), translated by R.H. Charles
1 And after this judgment they shall terrify and make them to tremble because they have shown this to those who dwell on the earth.
2 And behold the names of those angels the first of them is Semjaza, the second Artaqifa, and the third Armen, the fourth Kokabel, the fifth Turael, the sixth Rumjal, the seventh Danjal, the eighth Neqael, the ninth Baraqel, the tenth Azazel, the eleventh Armaros, the twelfth Batarjal, the thirteenth Busasejal, the fourteenth Hananel, the fifteenth Turel, and the sixteenth Simapesiel, the seventeenth Jetrel, the eighteenth Tumael, the nineteenth Turel, the twentieth Rumael, the twenty-first Azazel.
3 And these are the chiefs of their angels and their names, and their chief ones over hundreds and over fifties and over tens.
4 The name of the first Jeqon: that is, the one who led astray [all] the sons of God, and brought them down to the earth, and led them astray through the daughters of men.
5 And the second was named Asbeel: he imparted to the holy sons of God evil counsel, and led them astray so that they defiled their bodies with the daughters of men.
6 And the third was named Gadreel: he it is who showed the children of men all the blows of death, and he led astray Eve, and showed [the weapons of death to the sons of men] the shield and the coat of mail, and the sword for battle, and all the weapons of death to the children of men.
7 And from his hand they have proceeded against those who dwell on the earth from that day and for evermore.

8 And the fourth was named Penemue: …

I hold that the contradictions and problems in the Book of Parables concerning Azazel stem from the fact that Parables is not part of the original Book of Enoch (the Book of the Watchers), and that furthermore, the added Parables suffered considerable corruption from later editors in the Christian era.  Thus, the portions of verse 2 mentioning Azazel are not authentic, as is clearly seen by the clumsy editing performed, and should not be trusted. 

[1] This is maybe better seen by Richard Laurence’s translation, “Go to the biters, to the reprobates, to the children of fornication; and destroy the children of fornication, the offspring of the Watchers, from among men.”

[2] Richard Laurence’s translation of verse 3 is perhaps most clear on this; it states, “Then departing from him I spoke to them all together.” 

[3] As R.H Charles notes, “request” in verse 2 is almost surely a corruption of “rest.”  The Greek translators most likely mistook the Hebrew awls, which means ‘rest’, for alas, which means ‘request’.

[4] This event, recorded only in First  Enoch, is the apparent source of the Biblical name for the mount.  Hermon means ‘utterly devoted one’.  Hermon is Chermown (Nwmrx  – Strongs 2768).  It comes from the root charam (Mrx  – Strongs 2763), which means ‘utterly’, ‘devoted, or ‘dedicate for destruction’. 

[5] http://www.geocities.com/mabcosmic/index.html, Margi B

[6] It is readily apparent from the supplied text of First Enoch 69 that the original list of angels beginning in verse 4 do not refer to Watcher, but angels who fell with Satan long before the time of the Watchers.  The first two, Jeqon and Asbeel, are credited with bringing about the seduction of the Watchers by the daughters of man.  The third, Gadreel led astray Eve, and was thus fallen long before the advent of the Watchers.