3.18 Leviathan as the Fleeing Serpent Lilith

We now comes to an important set of evidences linking the Serpent Lilith to Leviathan.  By linking her to Leviathan, the source of many of the rather odd rabbinic beliefs concerning Lilith can be discovered.  The Bible declares that Leviathan dwells in the midst of the ocean.  Leviathan flees from before God, who casts it into the sea as a bebased creature to be mocked in the midst of the waters.  Leviathan and its companion Behemoth (which we shall see is her seed) are the ultimate examples of might and power upon the earth.  God’s judgment and slaying of them are the supreme demonstration of his power to all the world.  As such, Leviathan and its companion Behemoth play critical roles in the end times.  They are the key features of the dinner supper of the damned at the final judgment.  The damned shall feast upon their flesh.  This is contrast to the marriage supper of the righteous who are saved.  They spiritually partake of the flesh of Messiah, and they enter his kingdom as his bride. 

It is widely believed by readers of the Bible that Leviathan is just a sea monster (such as a whale) that is used in the Bible as a metaphor to demonstrate some spiritual points.  This is certainly understandable, as it is said to dwell in the ocean, and in Job 40 it is allegorically described as some type of fantastic monster.  The more learned scholar sees that there has to be much more to Leviathan than just a sea monster.  The power ascribed to Leviathan is too great for a mere beast.  It is the king of all sons of pride (Job 41:34).  It breaths fire.  The crushing of its head in the end-times at the hand of God is the ultimate demonstration of God’s power.  According to Isaiah, its role in the end-times is as prevalent as the Serpent.  God will judge with the sword all the mighty and wicked upon Leviathan.  Any scholar who seriously studies Leviathan and the Serpent, soon conclude the two are the same.  This is an easy conclusion.  Four times in the Bible Leviathan is called a Serpent, the very title of the garden’s villin.  In Amos 9 Leviathan is also called “the Serpent.”  In Isaiah Leviathan plays such an important role in the end-times judgment, Leviathan would crowd out the importance of the Serpent if the two were not the same. 

Amoung scholars Leviathan is widely acknowledged to be another title for the Serpent of the garden.  This acknowledgment is certainly what the kabbalistic rabbis did in construing Lilith’s fate after the garden.  From Leviathan many aspects of Lilith’s legend can be confirmed.  Leviathan is described as a serpent fleeing from God.  It dwells in the seas, and God shall crush its head in the great Day of Judgment. These facts confirm key aspects of Lilith’s legend.  Namely, that she fled as a fugitive from the garden, that she came to inhabit the seas, and that in the Day of Judgment the promised seed of Eve would crush her head.

Leviathan is mentioned in the Bible in seven passages – Job 3:8, 26:13, 41:1; Ps 74:14, 104:26; Amos 9:3; and Isa 27:1.  Two of the more informative references are Job 26:13 and Isa 27:1.  Those passages describe Leviathan as a “fleeing serpent.”  My literal translations are given below, along with the word-by-word break down is in Table 3‑12 and Table 3‑13.  The word for “fleeing” in Job 26:13 is bariyach (.  In Isa 27:1 the word is barach (xrb – Strongs 1272), the root of the prior bariyach.  Both variants mean to break off and “to flee” or “to escape”, as in being a fugitive.[1]  Thus, Leviathan is described as fleeing and being a fugitive from some situation.  This matches a key element of Lilith’s legend – that she sprouted wings and fled from the garden. 

Job 26:12-13 (KJV)

12 He divideth the sea with his power, and by his understanding he smiteth through the proud

13 By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens; his hand hath formed the crooked serpent.

Job 26:12-13 (My Literal)

12 With his strength he divides the sea, and with his understanding he smites Rahab.

13 With his spirit he has garnished the heavens; his hand profaned the fleeing serpent.









he smites

and with his understanding

the sea

he divides

With his strength











his hand

has profaned / twisted / pained

he has garnished

the heavens

With his spirit

Table 3‑12: A Transliteration of Job 26:13

The literal Hebrew of Job 26:13 in Table 3‑12 shows that God’s hand had chullah (sp hllx) the fleeing serpent.  The meaning of chullah has two theories.  Perhaps the confusion is intentional in the Hebrew of Job, and by a poetic play-on-words, both meanings were intended to be allowed.  The KJV and others assumes chullah must a unique variant of chuwl (lwx – Strongs 2342) found nowhere else in the Bible.  Chuwl means “to twist” or “to turn.”  It can also mean “pain”, from the sense of writhing or twisting in agony.  Thus the passage can be understood to say that God’s hand had “pained” or “twisted” the fleeing serpent.  However, the plain spelling of the word indicates another meaning.  The only five other times hllx appears exactly spelled elsewhere in the Bible, it is always interpreted as challah, a shortened form of chaliylah (hlylx – Strongs 2486), which literally means “to profane” or “to make utterly abhorred.”[2]  To be profane means to be eschewed and debased for reason of committing a wrong, unworthy, or vulgar act.  In Lev 21:7 and 14 challah is used twice to denote a “profane” woman that is unfit to be a wife of a priest.  The passages put her is in the same category as a whore and harlot.  The implications of this verse to Lilith is obvious.  Its states that God’s hand had caused to be profaned (eschewed through debasement) the fleeing serpent Lilith.  This matches the severe curse against the Serpent in Genesis that she would be lower than every cattle of the field.  Futhermore, Leviathan was profaned just as an unfit woman was profaned from being the wife of a priest.  This matches Lilith’s profanement from being Adam’s wife.

From Isaiah 27 we also learn that in a day of judgment, God shall slay Leviathan.  This matches Lilith’s legend that Eve’s promised seed would crush the Serpent’s head. 

Isa 26:21-27:1 (KJV)

26:21  For, behold, the LORD cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain.

27:1  In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.


Isa 26:21-27:1 (My Literal)

26:21  For, behold, Jehovah shall come out of his place to visit the iniquity of inhabitants of the earth upon them, and the earth shall uncover her blood, and shall not again cover her slain.

27:1  In that day Jehovah shall appoint with his sword the stiffnecked and the great and the strong upon Leviathan the fleeing serpent and upon Leviathan the twisted serpent; and he shall slay the dragon which is in the sea.









and the great

the stiffnecked

with his sword


he shall appoint


In day










and upon





and strong









in sea

which is

the dragon


and he shall slay



Table 3‑13: A Transliteration of Isa 27:1

From the Isaiah passage, we learn other fascinating facts concerning Leviathan.  In the great Day of Judgment, certain wicked people are slain by Jehovah and “appointed” or “reckoned” upon Leviathan.  These people are the stiffnecked and prideful, the great and powerful, and the strong.  As we shall see in later sections, this is consistent with Lilith’s role in the judgment of the end days.  More remarkably, Isaiah implies there are two Leviathans.  There is the fleeing Leviathan, and there is the twisted or torturous Leviathan.  Kabbalistic writings have explained that these represent two aspects of Lilith, one being male (the Fleeing Serpent) the other female (the Twisted Serpent).  In Isa 27:1, the dragon refers to the body, and Leviathan refers to the spirit.  In the mystical writing of the brothers Jacob and Isaac Hacohen of Castile, which predates the Zohar by a few decades, Lilith was created like Adam as an androgynous being.  Just as Eve was attached to Adam’s side, so too was Samael attached to Lilith’s side.[3]  As we shall see in later sections, the Zohar also speaks of two Liliths.  There is Evil Lilith and Sinful Lilith.  These are heavily mystical topics that will be covered later.  For now, let us continue to investigate the clear evidences linking Lilith to Leviathan. 

In its discussion of Leviathan, Psalm 74:14 confirms more elements of Lilith’s legend.  It states Leviathan dwells in the seas (as does Psalm 104:26).  This confirms the Lilith legend that she came to dwell in the sea.  Psalm 74 also speaks of God crushing the heads of Leviathan.  This confirms Leviathan’s identity as the Serpent, as it again matches God’s curse on the Serpent in Genesis that Eve’s promised seed would crush the head of the Serpent.  The plural “heads” in Psalm 14 is in probable reference to the multiple “dragons” in verse 13 (the bodies) and the two Leviathans (spirits) in Isa 27:1. 

Psalm 74:13-15 (KJV)

13Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength: thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters.

14Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness.

15Thou didst cleave the fountain and the flood: thou driedst up mighty rivers.


Psalm 74:13-15 (My Literal)

13 You broke the sea in your strength: you broke to pieces the heads of the dragons in the waters.

14 You crushed the heads of leviathan.  You will deliver us him to be food for people to dry places.

15 You broke open the fountain and the flood: You had dried up mighty rivers.









hta 14

to dry places

for people


you will deliver us


heads of



Table 3‑14: A Transliteration of Psalm 74:14

There is another clue in Psalm 74 that Leviathan is Lilith.  It involves the drying up of the seas when Leviathan is slain.  The drying up is consistent with Lilith’s judgment in Isaiah 34.  Isaiah 34 has the only passages in the Bible that directly mentions Lilith by name.  There it is related that she dwells in the seas, and that in the day of the final judgment the waters of her abode shall be dried up.  Section 3.21 will discuss in detail the appearance of Lilith in Isaiah 34.  For now, it is sufficient to say that that Leviathan’s judgment in a dried sea matches that of Lilith in Isaiah. 

The drying up of the seas in Ps 74:13-15 during Leviathan’s judgment can be seen in all three verses.  Verse 13 relates that in breaking the heads of the dragons, God will dry up the seas in which Leviathan lives.  The Hebrew word used is parar (rrp – Strongs 6565).  It means “to break”, “make void”, or “cause to cease.”  It is very often used in the sense of breaking an oath.  In verse 13 it implies that God caused the sea to cease, or evaporate.  This notion is confirmed in verses 14 and 15.  Verse 15 recalls that it is in God’s power to unleash floods and dry up mighty rivers.  Verse 14 tells us that Leviathan will be served up as food for people “to dry places.”  It is not that Leviathan’s body will be transported to deserts, but the place of his abode and slaying will become dry.  This feeding of Leviathan to the people is considered a critical element of the great Banquet celebrating the triumph of Messiah at the end of the age.  According to rabbinic Aggadah, not only will Leviathan’s body be for food, but also its skin will be used to make tents for the people.[4] 

There is another fascinating aspect of Leviathan to learn from Psalm 104.  As can be seen from a literal translation of verse 26 in Table 3‑15, God created Leviathan in order that he exist “for a derision” in the sea.  The word meaning “derision” is sachaq (qxs – Strongs 7832).  Although the KJV and others translate it as “play”, it more literally means “to deride”, “to mock”, or “to laugh” in a derisive way.  Therefore, the passage relates that God created Leviathan in order that it would become disparaged in the midst of the Sea.  This is precisely Lilith’s fate.  In her punishment she was confined to the depths of the sea.  

Psalm 104:24-26 (KJV)

24  O LORD, how manifold are thy works! in wisdom hast thou made them all: the earth is full of thy riches.

25  So is this great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping innumerable, both small and great beasts.

26  There go the ships: there is that leviathan, whom thou hast made to play therein.

Psalm 104:26 (My Literal)

26  There ships are travelers of that Leviathan you had formed for a derision in it. 









Ms 26

in it

for a derision

you had formed



are travelers



Table 3‑15: A Transliteration of Psalm 104:26

Amos 9:3 also provides evidence identifying the garden’s Serpent as Leviathan.  In Amos God declares that he will hunt down transgressors wherever they may flee.  If they go to the bottom of the sea, then he will command ha’nachash (“the Serpent”) there to bite them.  Amos 9:3 is generally acknowledged as a reference to Leviathan.  However, Leviathan here is called only ha’nachash (the Serpent), which is the precise title of the Serpent in the garden.  Thus, Amos 9:3 confirms that the Serpent of the garden is Leviathan, and that the Serpent dwells in the bottom of the sea.  This all matches the Lilith legend. 

Amos 9:3 (KJV)

And though they hide themselves in the top of Carmel, I will search and take them out thence; and though they be hid from my sight in the bottom of the sea, thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite them:


There is one final bit of non-Biblical information confirming Leviathan is Lilith.  Leviathan also appears in the Apocryphal Book of First Enoch.  In the book of Parables of First Enoch, Leviathan is specified as being female.  She is also associated with the abyss of the ocean and the fountain of waters there.  As we saw earlier, these fountains of waters are the same source of Noah’s flood and the mist which arose to water the ground when Lilith was formed.  Lilith’s home is said to be the sea.  There is a much more profound link between Leviathan and Lilith in this passage.  However, that is an end-times topic to be discussed in section 8.6.2. 

First Enoch: Parables 60:7-8 (translated by R. H. Charles)

And that day will two monsters be parted, one monster, a female named Leviathan in order to dwell in the abyss of the ocean over the fountains of water; and (the other), a male called Behemoth, which holds his chest in an invisible desert whose name is Dundayin, east of the garden of Eden.

[1] Note that the KJV incorrectly translates both bariyach and barach in the passages.  In Job it mistranslates bariyach as “crooked” and then in Isaiah it mistranslates barach as “piercing.”  The ASV, YLT, ILB, and many other modern translations correct these errors. 

[2] These exact spelling matches of challah come in Ge 18:25, Le 21:7 and 14, and in Job 34:10.  The KJV often translates chaliylah as “God forbid” or “far be it”, as in “God forbid” that such and such should happen, or “far be it” that such and such happen.  However, it should be literally understood as saying, it is “utterly abhorred” that such and such should happen. 

[3] The Hebrew Goddess, Raphael Patai, p. 231.

[4] B. Bab. Bath. 74b-75a; The Messiah Texts; Raphael Patai; p. 237. 

12  (AV) He divideth the sea with his power, and by his understanding he smiteth through the proud.

bhr Uxm w:tnbwt:b:w My:h egr w:xk:b 12  (BHM)

Smite is 04272 Uxm machats

proud is 07294 bhr Rahab from 07293 bhr rahab

That day is the day of the resurrection of the dead.  Prior verse is Isa 26:21

h:ygwrh-le dwe hokt-al:w h:ymd-ta Ura:h htlg:w w:yle Ura:h-bsy Nwe dqp:l w:mwqm:m auy hwhy hnh-yk

Ps 72:9  They that dwell in the wilderness <06728> shall bow before him; and his enemies shall lick the dust.

Ps 74:14  Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness <06728>.

Isa 13:21  But wild beasts of the desert <06728> shall lie there; and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there.

Isa 23:13  Behold the land of the Chaldeans; this people was not, till the Assyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wilderness <06728>: they set up the towers thereof, they raised up the palaces thereof; and he brought it to ruin.

Isa 34:14  The wild beasts of the desert <06728> shall also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry to his fellow; the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest.

Jer 50:39  Therefore the wild beasts of the desert <06728> with the wild beasts of the islands shall dwell there, and the owls shall dwell therein: and it shall be no more inhabited for ever; neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation.

Nwklhy Kynp-rwab hwhy hewrt yedwy Meh yrsa <89:16> Ps 89:15

Ps 89:15 ¶  (AV) Blessed is the people that know the joyful sound: they shall walk, O LORD, in the light of thy countenance.


Nwklhy Myrh Nyb Mylxnb Mynyem xlsmh Ps 104:10

Ps 104:10 ¶  (AV) He sendeth the springs into the valleys, which run among the hills.